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Neurological Conditions


Neurology involves the study of the functions and disorders of the nervous system of the human body. Your nervous system is composed of two parts: the central nervous system comprising your brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system which consists of nerves, nerve cell tissues, nerve endings that respond to sensory stimuli and all other neural elements. A neurological condition refers to any disease, injury or disorder of the brain, spinal cord or any other part of your nervous system that may often cause serious disabilities.

neurological conditionsCauses of neurological conditions

Neurological conditions may be caused by:

  1. injury or trauma
  2. infections
  3. inflammation
  4. degeneration
  5. structural defects
  6. tumours or
  7. blood flow disruption

Types of neurological conditions

Neurological conditions affect various parts of the nervous system.

Central nervous system

The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Diseases of the central nervous system have an effect on physical movement and may lead to paralysis or mental incapacitation, and speech and language disorders such as stuttering. In some cases, the brain may be infected with a disease such as Toxoplasmosis, which is caused by the one-celled protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Toxoplasmosis can cause blindness and brain damage.

Peripheral nervous system

The peripheral nervous system consists of the nerves and all other parts of the nervous system, except the brain and spinal cord. Neurological conditions that affect the nerves include rabies which is an acute viral disease transmitted through saliva coming from the bite of an infected animal and polio which is an infectious viral disease that affects the muscles of the lower limbs.

Since the peripheral nervous system is associated with our senses, conditions affecting it may also involve the decrease or increase of sensitivity to sensory stimuli as in the case of hyperesthesia that is characterised by excessive sensitivity and neuralgia which is presented with intense burning, stabbing or throbbing pain sensations.

Neuralgia is caused by the irritation of or damage to a nerve. On the other hand, neuritis is the inflammation of a nerve or group of nerves resulting in pain, loss of reflexes, and atrophy of the affected muscles.

Other neurological conditions

The nervous system also regulates involuntary action such as digestion, sweating, and heart rate. This aspect of the nervous system may also be affected by neurological conditions such as dysautonomia which is characterised by the fall in blood pressure during standing, heart problems, and trouble with breathing and swallowing, or erectile dysfunction in men. Dysautonomia may occur alone or in association with another disease such as Parkinson’s disease, or caused by diabetes or alcoholism.

Neurological conditions also include the following:

  • muscle disorders and pain
  • headache and facial pain
  • epilepsy and dizzy turns
  • brain and spinal cord tumours
  • multiple sclerosis
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • stroke
  • sleep disorders
  • muscular disease
  • dementia
  • amnesia


A neurologist is one who specialises in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological conditions. Medical treatment may also be complemented with natural therapies to boost the effects of the treatment plan as well as to minimise or neutralise unpleasant side effects of pharmaceutical drugs.


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